Nearly 2.7 million people living in America were either born in Cuba or report Cuban descent. When Cuban people migrate to the United States, they often become targets of kidnappers who believe that they are likely to have family in the U.S. with means and willing to pay a ransom. So, Yonny Latifa, 27, had strong reason to worry when he found soldiers on the Honduran-Guatemala border on a trip to the United States earlier this year.
“When I see them, I feel scared,” Latifa told the New Times. “The route through those Central American countries traffickers take you through is similar to drug traffic. I thought people would be kidnapped or something similar, but it turns out they and the traffickers have a good relationship.”
Latifa eventually came to Mexico and has made plans to seek asylum at the U.S. border. But, before that can happen, he was deported back to Cuba on March 9 after it was found that he illegally entered Mexico. Now Latifa is unemployed and living in Havana with her father.
He is not alone. Since the Nicaraguan government eliminated visa requirements for Cuban citizens late last year, most Cubans who try to enter the United States are now flying to Nicaragua, then heading north across Mexico on foot – and at a record -setting rate, even eclipses. the number of migrants arriving to the border from Central America. Between October 2021 and May 2022, more than 79,000 Cuban migrants have reached U.S. soil and the New York Times reports that 150,000 Cuban people will have arrived in this country since October 1, 2022. March and April saw the monthly record number of Cuban migrants at 32,000 and 35,000 , respectively, before the number dropped to 25,000 in May. To put that into perspective, at the same time in 2019, roughly 21,500 Cuban migrants came to the United States, according to data from U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
The current factors that are causing the increase in Cuban migration are diverse: Inflation is rising around the world, and Cuba has not escaped. Long lines can be seen all over the country when people wait for basic things, and are not always successful.
“The economy is the number one driver of migration,” said William LeoGrande, a special government professor in Latin American foreign policy at the American University in Washington, D.C. “The Cuban economy is in a severe strait between the pandemic and U.S. sanctions. The feeling on the island is that the economy is not progressing. There is disappointment, hope, and frustration.”
The second reason, LeoGrande says, is pent-up demand.
During fiscal years 2015 and 2016, “approximately 50,000 Cuban people will come each year,” he thinks. “About 30,000 to 40,000 came on visas or family reunions, and the rest came through wet-feet, dry-feet.”
The U.S. has seen many waves of migrants from Cuba since since the Cuban Revolution in 1959, but none are compatible with current migration. From July 1959 to June 1965, the U.S. Coast Guard rescued 6,862 Cuban people who traveled north by ship. From the Cuban port of Camarioca, between 10 October and 15 November 1965, 2,979 Cubans took Cuban president Fidel Castro on an offer to leave the country after submitting an application to do so to the Interior Ministry and agreeing to forfeit. any land or property in Cuba. But thousands who took to the sea overwhelmed the Coast Guard.
This led to an agreement between Cuba and the US to establish the “Freedom Flight”. From 1965 to 1973, ten flights a week brought approximately 300,000 Cuban people to the US. Furthermore, from April to October 1980, during the Mariel Boatlift, approximately 125,000 Cuban people traveled north after Castro allowed anyone who wanted to board a ship to the U.S. to do so. . (Cuba is famous for freeing countless numbers of refugees from prisons and mental hospitals, but most migrants seek relief from political oppression.)
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 significantly changed Cuban immigration to the U.S. Previously, most migrants were political refugees. After the collapse of the USSR, the Cuban economy collapsed, sending the nation into an economic tailspin during a time the Cuban government dubbed the “Special Period”. Since the 1990s, Cuban migrants have usually been economic refugees. In 1994, when roughly 35,000 Cuban people migrated to the United States on makeshift rafts in what became known as the Balsero Crisis, the Clinton administration implemented a policy known as wet-foot, dry-foot: In essence, Cubans were made to U.S. soil. (i.e., “dry feet,”) were allowed to stay. People who were intercepted or rescued at sea (“wet feet”) were sent back to Cuba. The policy was rescinded during the last days of the Obama administration as part of a short. life normalization effort.
President Trump’s “maximum pressure” policy, which was largely abandoned by the Biden government, prevented the money needed to flow to the island and drastically reduced American travel, which stopped during the pandemic and gradually recovered. This puts Cuba in a weaker economic position.
Currently, the main pain point for Cuban people is the presence of “MLC” stores, or Moneda Libremente Convertible, which only accept payments in hard currencies, such as U.S. dollars. Cubans without access to foreign currency (often sent from abroad by family members) are often forced to find what they need by waiting in long queues at stores that accept Cuban pesos. Meanwhile, MLC stores usually offer a larger supply of general merchandise. Facing such struggles every day can wear on the population, contributing to dissatisfaction and desire to migrate, explains Rafael Hernandez, a Cuban political scientist who has studied Cuban migration for decades.
But Hernandez paints a more complicated picture than simply blaming the poor economic situation in Cuba as a driving factor for migration.
“The economic crisis was a factor, but 1991 to 1995 was a lot worse. In 1993 and ’94, we didn’t have the food production we [now] have in the private sector,” says Hernandez. “Compare the buying power of the dollar market to 1993 to ’95 – the current situation is not so bad.”
Comparing the current crisis to the waves of migration in 1980 and 1994, Hernandez suggests that Cubans who migrated now know that the decision to leave is no longer final because Cuban President Raúl Castro has allowed Cubans living abroad to apply for “repatriation”. Hernandez considers the opportunity to return to Cuba to be a factor in “such an economic situation” when Cubans decide to stay or leave the island country.
The Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966 allows Cubans to claim permanent residency after living in the U.S. for a year. But many believe that the special treatment Cuban migrants continue to receive in the U.S. will not last forever, resulting in the urge to migrate sooner than later.
“When normalization continues, migration becomes more and more normal. Special access rights become very dubious,” Hernandez explains. “The driving factor cannot be understood without the attraction factor.”
OMB defines & quot; Hispanic or Latino & quot; as people of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.
Why did the Cuban come to the United States in 1959?
Cuba first arrived in the United States in large numbers after the 1959 communist revolution led by Fidel Castro. See the article : New pediatric mental health services are now available to primary care providers throughout the state. First, the elite came as political refugees and supporters of the US -backed regime that was overthrown by the Castro revolution.
Why did so many Cuban people move to New York in the 1950s? Tens of thousands of Cubans moved abroad during the 1940s and 1950s, in search of better economic opportunities and civil liberties. On the night of the Cuban Revolution on January 1, 1959, about 60,600 Cuban people lived in the United States, mainly in New York.
What did the US do to Cuba in 1960?
In October 1960, the U.S. imposed and subsequently tightened a comprehensive set of prohibitions and prohibitions against the Cuban government, ostensibly in retaliation for the nationalization of U.S. corporations ’property by Cuba.
What happened to Cuba in the 1959?
January 8 – Fidel Castro is greeted by a cheering crowd as he enters Havana. See the article : The California Governor’s mental health court plan is progressing due to concerns. January 12 – In the mass execution of the former largest official since Castro’s victory, Cuban communists shot 71 Fulgencio Batista supporters for seven hours, then buried them in a mass cemetery.
How many Cubans are abroad?
|feature||Number of emigrants from Cuba|
How many immigrants from Cuba? These are people who are familiar with the United States guardianship of Cuba. This may interest you : Willie Wilson advertises upcoming food and gas deals for $ 2 million. In the period between January 1959 and October 1962, called historical exile, 248,100 emigrants left Cuba.
What percentage of the world is Cuban?
The population of Cuba is equivalent to 0.15% of the total world population. Cuba ranks number 83 on the list of countries (and dependencies) by population.
Are Cubans allowed to travel internationally?
Most Cubans will no longer need an official exit visa or invitation letter from a resident of their destination country to travel abroad, effective January 14, 2013. The new law also has more than twice (to 24 months) time periods. that Cuban citizens can go abroad without losing their Cuban residency.
Can a Cuban citizen Visit USA 2021?
US tourist visa is required for Cuban citizens. The stay is usually long with a period of 180 days and the visa expires up to 10 years. Applicants are required to be present when applying for a U.S. tourist visa.
Can Cuba enter the US without a visa? The U.S. Department of State reduced the validity of B2 visas for Cuban citizens to three months with a single entry, effective March 18, 2019 [PDF version].
How can I bring someone from Cuba to US?
To apply for an immigrant visa, foreign nationals seeking immigration must generally be sponsored by a U.S. citizen or immediate relative of a legal permanent resident, or a prospective U.S. employer, and have an approved petition before applying for an immigrant visa.
Can Cubans get a tourist visa?
Cuban tourist visa is also known as Cuban Tourist Card. If you are from the country of Cuba — a visa is required, you must receive a tourist card before departure. You can get a Tourist Card at the Cuban consulate, through a travel agency, through an authorized visa application agency, as well as at some airports.
Are Cuban citizens allowed travel?
Cubans enjoy visa -free travel, with visa on arrival and eVisa options to more than 60 countries around the world. However, those who have a Cuban passport must apply for a visa for other countries before entering.
What U.S. city has the largest Cuban population?
The U.S. metropolitan area with the largest Cuban population
- Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL MSA-982,758.
- New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA-CT MSA-135,391.
- Tampa-St. …
- Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA-49,702.
- Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA-36,724.
What percent of Miami is Cuba? Population and Diversity of Miami In 2000, the most important ethnic/national origin in Miami was Cuba (34.1%of the population), followed by Nicaragua (5.6%), Haitian (5.5%), Honduran (3.3 %), Dominica (1.7%). ) and Colombia (1.6%).
What city in Florida has the highest Cuban population?
Hialeah also has the highest percentage of Cuban and Cuban American residents of any city in the United States, at 73.37% of the population, making them a distinctive and prominent feature of the city’s culture.
What U.S. city is known for its large Cuban population?
Called the “Capital of Latin America” because of its high Spanish -speaking population – Miami is the second largest U.S. city with a Spanish -speaking population. In fact, it is the largest city in the United States with a Cuban-American plurality. In 2012, there were 1.2 million Cubans in Greater Miami.