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United Nations

2022 increased,

6th meeting (AM)

The Special Committee on Decolonization today approved a draft resolution reaffirming the inalienable right of the people of Puerto Rico to self-determination and independence, and calls on the United States to assume its responsibility to advance a process for these goals.

Under the terms of the resolution entitled “Resolution of the Special Committee of 18 June 2021 on Puerto Rico” – which was approved without a vote and will now go to the General Assembly for resolution – the 193-member body would support a process enabling the Puerto Rican people to make decisions that meet their urgent economic and social needs, including unemployment, marginalization, insolvency and poverty. This may interest you : Pence navigates a possible race for the White House and a tense political moment. Among other things, it will urge the US government to complete the return of all countries occupied by their military forces in the territory of the people of Puerto Rico.

The representative of Cuba, who introduced the text, said that it confirms the Latin American and Caribbean character of Puerto Rico, which the inhabitants have been able to maintain despite the actions of the colonial power. He expressed concern about undue scrutiny and economic influence from the United States over the island, and said the resolution also expressed concern about cases of repression and harassment against activists in Puerto Rico. “The adoption of this text with the support of all members of the [Special] Committee […] would be the best contribution this body could make to the just cause of the Puerto Rican people,” he said.

Prior to the adoption of the resolution, members of the Special Committee – formally known as the Special Committee for the Situation on the Implementation of the Declaration of Independence to Colonial Lands and Peoples – heard testimonies from petitioners related to Puerto Rico. While many were in favor of a full self-determination process leading to national autonomy for the island, others pointed out that Puerto Ricans voted to become the fifty-first state of the United States in a referendum in November 2020. These speakers called for state decolonization, noting currently weighs the Puerto Rico Statehood Admission Act, proposed by members of Congress in 2021, which some described as a “historic opportunity.”

Michael Viera, a petitioner for the El Grito organization, said the special committee “is not a committee to continue colonization”. He recalls that a historic gag law introduced by the United States criminalized the independence movement in Puerto Rico, and said that the island’s residents still continued to fight. Today, the island is represented on the mainland by a “sham congress delegation”, with many delegates to meet before the special committee today. However, it remains that “Puerto Rico is not for sale”, he emphasized, and asked the special committee to ensure that the matter is brought before the general meeting as soon as possible.

Speaking on behalf of the ProLibertad Freedom Campaign, Benjamin Ramos said since Puerto Rico’s first colonization, the island’s residents have been victims of US exploitation. Even today, the island still suffers severely from Puerto Rico’s surveillance, management, and economic stability law – known as PROMESA – which established a Financial Supervision and Administration Board and resulted in significant austerity measures. He described the economic crises that followed, including large increases in the cost of basic services, and said that these measures also encouraged tourism companies on the island that have oversaturated the pockets of the rich “who just want to get richer”.

María Isabelle Pérez-Hedges, who spoke for the Puerto Ricans on the Minnesota Committee, said she stands by the multitude of indigenous movements that have been fed a paternalistic narrative that they can not survive independently without their hands held by a colonizing power. “The people of Puerto Rico continue to endure and endure through a failed American experiment,” she stressed, noting that they have long demanded that their island “should no longer be the booty of war” to a nation that is destroying Puerto Rico’s environment. , performs scientific experiments on their women’s bodies and fails to provide even the most basic emergency assistance in crisis situations and natural disasters.

Ricardo Rossello, former governor of Puerto Rico, spoke on behalf of the special delegation from Puerto Rico to the US Congress, and welcomed the fact that after years of inaction, the US Congress has finally drafted a consensus bill to achieve the island’s decolonization, known as Puerto Rico. Rico Statehood Admission Act. While the Special Committee may choose to continue to “tick a box” by holding hearings and adopting resolutions, it may also seize the limited opportunity by supporting the efforts of Congress. “I stand for state,” he said, describing it as a historic opportunity.

Eugenio Matias, on behalf of Puerto Rico’s extended congressional delegation, noted that Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico do not have the same rights as citizens living within the 50 states of that country. While some benefit from the island’s current status, the rest of the population finds itself in a situation of extreme inequality. He urged the Special Committee to urge the US Congress and President to address this inequality and give all American citizens equal rights, adding that 53 percent of Puerto Ricans already voted for the island to be included as the fifty-first state.

Meanwhile, Manuel Rivera, who spoke for the organization Puertorriquenos Unidos En Accion, said after 124 years of colonialism and imposed rule “even those who are most loyal to independence are dependent on [US] citizenship.” He pointed out that many people around the world enjoy the benefits of dual citizenship, saying that the transfer of autonomy to Puerto Ricans does not necessarily mean that individual islanders need to lose their U.S. citizenship in the United States.

Several representatives of UN member states also weighed in on the discussion.

The Nicaraguan delegate emphasized the moral responsibility of the Special Committee to fulfill its mandate to eradicate colonialism. He reaffirmed that Puerto Rico is a Latin American and Caribbean nation, and praised the patriotic revolutionaries, socialists, poets and other heroes of the island who also showed solidarity with the Sandinista resistance. He called on the United States to decolonize the territory and said that Puerto Rico could not continue to be an exception to the UN decolonization agenda.

The representative of Azerbaijan, speaking on behalf of the non-aligned movement, reaffirmed the bloc’s principled position in support of colonized peoples across the globe. He stressed his unwavering support for the implementation of all relevant UN resolutions in the case of Puerto Rico, and expressed concern that the island’s very limited decision-making authority has exacerbated the effects of several recent crises – including hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. The U.S. decision to impose a Financial Oversight and Management Board violates the territory’s ability to manage its own economic affairs, he noted, urging Washington, D.C. to take responsibility for speeding up the decolonization process on the island.

Representatives of Venezuela, Bolivia, Cuba, Syria and Argentina also spoke (on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States).

The special committee will meet again at 10.00 on Thursday 23 June to continue their work.

Hearing of Complainants in Puerto Rico

BENJAMIN RAMOS, who spoke for the ProLibertad Freedom Campaign, said since Puerto Rico’s first colonization, the island’s residents have been victims of US exploitation. Even today, the island still suffers severely from Puerto Rico’s surveillance, management, and economic stability law – known as PROMESA – which established a Financial Supervision and Administration Board and resulted in significant austerity measures. He described the economic crises that followed, including large increases in the cost of basic services, and said that these measures also encouraged tourism companies on the island that have oversaturated the pockets of the rich “who just want to get richer”. The idea that the US government has the right to this type of control is ridiculous, he emphasized, and so is the presence of the special committee today of the disgraced former Puerto Rico governor Ricardo Antonio Rosselló Nevares. His presence is an insult to the will of the Puerto Rican people, he said, urging the special committee to pass a resolution calling for an end to the island’s colonization and to bring the matter before the General Assembly.

EDUARDO VILLANUEVA MUÑOZ, who spoke for the Puerto Rican Bar Association, said that the international community has a responsibility to ensure that the colonization of Puerto Rico comes to an end. He noted that the association has examined the Assembly for constitutional status to initiate a political process with the United States – and to ensure that the people of Puerto Rico have the last word – he proposed a formula for a “different type of status”, which would allow a certain degree of US citizenship. However, it is crucial that the people of the territory enjoy such fundamental rights as the right to vote, receive social services and own property. The fact that, in the current wording, any referendum will be monitored by the US Department of Justice is a major flaw in the system. Meanwhile, he said, the United States has violated several aspects of the Charter of Human Rights, including through the use of the death penalty.

JOSE MELENDEZ-ORTIZ, who spoke for LULAC Puerto Rico, welcomed the fact that the US government is working for the first time on a “transparent, inclusive” decolonization process that can be self-fulfilling in nature. But for such a process to be fruitful, the international community – and the UN in particular – must first recognize that Puerto Rico is in fact a colony, and that the General Assembly “made a mistake” in its historical understanding of this status. . He pointed out that 53 percent of the island’s population does not accept Puerto Rico’s current status, and described it as absurd that a continuation of this status should be an option on the ballot “when we vote again”. He described the self-serving language now included in the political process as a major step forward, saying it was the only way for the people of Puerto Rico to move forward. “No more colonies […] the population of Puerto Rico deserve so much more,” he stressed.

JAN SUSLER, who spoke for the National Lawyers Guild and noted that the United States continues to give a thumbs up to international law, said that the colonial government in Puerto Rico today looks like “disaster capitalism.” She drew attention to the fiscal supervisory board that was set up by the United States to manage the territory’s economy, called “La Junta”, and noted that it pushed through a debt service plan starving Puerto Ricans of basic services to debtors. Its plan cuts pensions for already underpaid public schoolteachers and will close many public schools and privatize the University of Puerto Rico. She also noted that the tax cuts approved by the ruling elite enable private investors to reap profits and build environmentally damaging projects, drawing attention to the solidarity of Puerto Ricans, who have established mutual aid and resistance organizations to deal with this unsustainable scenario.

ESTELI CAPOTE, who spoke for the Instituto Puertorriqueño de Relaciones Internacionales, and called for urgent decolonization operations, pointed to the large number of organizations from Puerto Rico and the diaspora present in the UN today. She noted that the lower house of the US Congress is currently submitting a draft to decolonize Puerto Rico, and stressed that the state is only possible through a proxy process that must be recognized at the international level. Furthermore, it must be done for the benefit of Puerto Rico’s social and economic development, she said, and also expressed concern about the tax administration and governance imposed by the United States to oblige the territory to pay an illegal debt.

ROGELIO MALDONADO III, who spoke for Jornada Se Acabaron Las Promesas, noting that for years people of Puerto Rican descent have come to the United Nations from all over the world to condemn colonialism, has made little progress. “We are being pushed into the position of pariahs of our own country,” he said, adding that while the United States has drafted bills and projects to deal with this issue, it is “just siren calls” trying to push back any efforts to achieve real independence. What does the territory have to go through to get the UN involved, he asked, adding that “there is no point in us coming back every year from different sectors in Puerto Rico to say what you already know”.

CARLOS VEGA, speaking for Movimiento Independentista Nacional Hostosiano, said July 25 would mark the 124th anniversary of the US first invading Puerto Rico and then tricking the international community into believing the island had its own government. Today, the PROMESA control board controls everything we do, he said, adding that the island itself lacks the ability to decide on basic autonomy issues, such as immigration. “We do not participate in international decision-making processes,” he said, expressing support for the draft resolution of the special committee. In fact, Puerto Rico has never had the opportunity to be independent, he said, calling for action to end “one of the most diverse battles in history.”

VANESSA RAMOS, speaking on behalf of the Asociacion Americana de Juristas, also expressed support for the draft resolution of the Special Committee, which called for the right to self-determination and independence in Puerto Rico. In truth, the island is a Latin American and Caribbean country facing a protracted colonial situation that has not yet been addressed. “Decolonization must be decided by those who are colonized, not by the colonizer,” she stressed, adding that Puerto Rico’s legal debt cannot be taxed by the United States. That country has created a monopoly on the island that violates fundamental human rights while trying to eradicate Puerto Rico’s diversity. Multinational companies commit atrocities, and compensation is needed. She stressed that the United States has used Puerto Rico for its own purposes, and said that it must now comply with the terms of General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV), and asked the Special Committee to send a visit to the island as soon as possible.

The representative of Papua New Guinea, who spoke on a point of order, acknowledged and expressed respect for the views freely expressed by petitioners today. However, he requested that “we maintain the decor of this meeting room” while the meeting continues.

TRILCE TORRES LÓPEZ, who spoke for the Gran Oriente Nacional de Puerto Rico, stressing that the decolonization of Puerto Rico is not a national issue but an international one, emphasized that it must be carried out in accordance with international law and not with unilateral measures imposed by the United Nations. states. She pointed to the tax regime which is exacerbating the economic situation in the territory, adding that it is unacceptable that the territory’s requests do not reach the assembly. “The dignity of our people is being undermined,” she said, adding that the island’s people are governed by a military force, without control over their own affairs and subordinated to the negative effects of US law.

JUAN DALMAU, who spoke for the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño and called on the United States to carry out the decolonization of Puerto Rico, said they must respect the legacy of the territory as a Latin American and Caribbean country. He points to the 15 unburned years of economic recession that Puerto Rico has suffered, and said that a significant portion of the population has emigrated as a result. Now more than ever, the territory needs international support, he said, adding that the international community has the tools to bring significant legal and moral pressure on the United States so that it can not continue to use pretexts and excuses.

Speaking for the Estado Nacional Soberano de Borinken, RAMON NENADICH, emphasizing that the referendum offered by the United States is a lie in line with the “free association state”, said: “Do not be fooled by this new art”. After 124 years of colonialism and the repression of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation and the colonial police, as well as dozens of assassinations, it is hard to believe that “we can use our voice freely,” he said. He asked the International Court of Justice to issue an advisory opinion on the status of the island, saying that the empire must not be allowed to continue to deceive Puerto Rico or the General Assembly.

MANUEL RIVERA, who spoke for Puertorriquenos Unidos En Accion, said after 124 years of colonialism and imposed rule “even those who are most loyal to independence are dependent on [US] citizenship.” He pointed out that many people around the world enjoy the benefits of dual citizenship, saying that the transfer of autonomy to Puerto Ricans does not necessarily mean that individual islanders need to lose their U.S. citizenship.

MICHAEL VIERA, who spoke for El Grito, said the special committee “is not a committee for the continuation of colonization”. “We have seen the same pattern over and over again,” where concepts such as “independence” and “colonization” are twisted and turned to confuse indigenous peoples. He recalls that a historic gag law criminalized the independence movement on the island, saying that the Puerto Ricans still continued to fight. He noted that the island’s “sham congress delegation” – elected by only 3.9 percent of the population and led by the leader of the previously disgraced government in Puerto Rico – is represented by the special committee today, and stressed that “Puerto Rico does not exist sale ”and urged the matter to be brought before the general meeting.

MARÍA ISABELLE PÉREZ-HEDGES, who spoke for the Puerto Ricans in the Minnesota Committee, said she stands by the multitude of indigenous movements that have been fed a paternalistic narrative that they can not survive independently without their hands held by a colonizing power. “The people of Puerto Rico continue to endure and endure through a failed American experiment,” she stressed, noting that they have long demanded that their island “should no longer be the booty of war” to a nation that is destroying Puerto Rico’s environment. , performs scientific experiments on their women’s bodies and fails to provide even the most basic emergency assistance in crisis situations and natural disasters.

RICARDO ROSSELLO, who spoke on behalf of the Special Delegation from Puerto Rico to the United States Congress, recalling his statement to the Special Committee nine years ago as part of a rights coalition in Boricua, pointing out that he is here today on behalf of the expanded congressional delegation to Puerto Rico to the United States. “I stand before you a little older with a few new scars, a little less idealistic, but still hope remains,” he said, adding that after years of inaction, the United States Congress has finally drafted a consensus bill to achieve decolonization of Puerto Rico. “You can choose to stay on the sidelines again, or you can choose to get actively involved,” he said, adding that although it is possible to continue to tick a box by continuing to hold special committee hearings and pass resolutions, and support the efforts of Congress. is crucial to seize this limited opportunity. “I stand for state,” he said, describing it as a historic opportunity.

WALTER ALOMAR, who spoke for the Organization for Culture of Hispanic Origins, noting that Puerto Rico would be looted, kept poor and exploited as long as its political status is not resolved, said “we will remain in a limbo where poverty will continue to increase “. He pointed to the impact on female family heads and their children, as well as other marginalized sections of the population, and noted homelessness, displacement of entire communities and families in the face of gentrification and labor exploitation. He highlighted in particular the lack of education due to the closure of schools imposed by a tax administration that the Puerto Ricans did not elect, adding that “statehood is a fantasy” and Puerto Rico has the right to be a sovereign and independent international economy.

SARA LOBMAN, who spoke for the United States Socialist Workers’ Party, said United colonial rule had plundered Puerto Rico’s wealth while pressuring workers. She highlighted the cuts in wages, pensions and living standards enforced by the U.S. tax administration, and demanded that Washington write off Puerto Rico’s debt. In the United States, workers and peasants are ravaged by the same capitalist catastrophe, she said, pointing to inflation, drug overdoses and unemployment. She noted that this is part of a world capitalist crisis, and stressed that working people are not helpless victims. Workers and their unions have been protesting across the island, she said, adding that workers in the United States have an important stake in fighting for an independent Puerto Rico.

BEATRIZ AREIZAGA, speaking on behalf of the Extended Congress Delegation for Puerto Rico (Washington DC), noted that she is appearing before the Special Committee in an effort to end Puerto Rico’s colonial status. She advocated for the American state – which will give Puerto Ricans a better quality of life – she asked the special committee to help the people of the island break free from the slavery they have endured for more than a century.

CARMEN HERNANDEZ, who spoke for the New York State Coalition of Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, said she was forced to speak to the special committee when her mother passed away before she could see victory for Puerto Ricans seeking state and equality at the ballot box. She agreed with other speakers that millions of Puerto Ricans continue to experience powerlessness every day, and said that their deprivation of the right to vote as American citizens is a great failure for the country’s democracy. Against that backdrop, she called on the Special Committee to support the Puerto Rico Statehood Admission Act, which is currently before the U.S. Congress.

EUGENIO MATIAS, who spoke in favor of the expanded congressional delegation, noting that US citizens in Puerto Rico do not have the same rights as citizens living in the 50 states of that country, adding “we are not allowed to elect the president.” He stressed that the territory should be able to enjoy the same rights as those of the states, adding that “you can not deprive people of electing a president just because of a tax situation.” While some take advantage of this situation, the rest of the population ends up in a situation of extreme inequality. He urged the special committee to urge the US Congress and the president of that country to resolve this inequality and give all American citizens equal rights, adding that 53 percent of Puerto Rico voted for the island to be included as the fifty. -first state.

YADIRA O’FARRILL of the Extended Congressional Delegation Pro Statehood of Puerto Rico in Georgia, USA, noting that Puerto Ricans do not have the right to vote in US Congress or presidential elections, pointed out that the territory has only one House of Representatives with limited voting power. represent 3 million plus US citizens in Puerto Rico. “Just moving to Puerto Rico makes you a second-class citizen,” she said, adding that the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is a euphemism and an excuse to ignore the fact that colonial relations continue into the twenty-first century. The majority of the island’s residents are proud to be American citizens and are opposed to ending relations with the United States, she said, adding that there is an overwhelming preference for citizenship over any other decolonization formula. “We are on the verge of a historic consensus in the US Congress to decolonize Puerto Rico,” she said, asking the special committee to support this consensus proposal.

LIA FIOL-MATTA, who spoke for the Latino Justice PRLDEF, said since 1953 that the United States has claimed that Puerto Rico is an “autonomous territory”, but nothing can be further from the truth. Just last year, a judge in the United States approved a plan to restructure the island’s debt, which has received much-deserved criticism. The plan cut funding for municipal services, took money from teachers’ pensions and leaves many important monetary processes to PROMESA’s tax control board. She also noted that the US Supreme Court recently ruled that Puerto Ricans living with disabilities lack access to additional government assistance, and rejected this claim, noting that it treats the most vulnerable islanders as political farmers. Against this backdrop, she asked the Special Committee to fully implement General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) in the case of Puerto Rico and complete a comprehensive self-determination process as soon as possible.

KATHY BLOUNT, who spoke for the Puerto Rico Statehood Delegation, noted that the United States was just celebrating its jubilee holiday – known as “Freedom Day”, which marks the true end of slavery – and said that Puerto Ricans were also colonized and fought for independence. They are now on the verge of becoming the fifty-first state in the United States, a move that is “long overdue” and is supported by the international community. Outlining the negative effects of the island’s long-standing colonial character – especially on the poorest and most vulnerable – she said the United States National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, known as the NAACP, also supports the state of Puerto Rico, and called on the Special Committee to Support Puerto Rico Statehood Admission Act which is now before the US Congress.

Representatives of the following organizations also spoke: Generacion 51, Coalición Puertorriqueña contra la Pena de Muerte, Vidas Viequenses Valen, Movimiento Unión Soberanista, Partido Nacionalista de Puerto Rico, Frente Independentista Boricua, Boricuas Unidos en la Diáspora, Rico, Puerto Delegacion Rico, Delegado Congresional Extendio P.R., Reading High School Parents Organization, Puerto Rico Extended Congressional Delegates / Pennsylvania Chapter, Sovereign National State of Borinken, Puerto Rico Bilingue, Inc., Rhode Island Statehood for Extending Puerto Rico and Delegates USA.

JOAQUÍN PÉREZ (Venezuela), in line with the statements to be delivered by the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the non-aligned movement, noted the long history of decolonization around the world. He reaffirmed his support for all efforts to end colonization in all its forms and noted the country’s close ties to Puerto Rico. For 120 years, the territory has not been able to enjoy its right to self-determination as a free and sovereign state, he said, noting that this has proved to be a serious obstacle to development. Despite the fact that the special committee has considered this case for 50 years, there has been no progress due to the lack of political will from the United States. He urged Washington, D.C. to facilitate a process to ensure that Puerto Rico will be free and sovereign, adding that the country must relinquish its facilities on the island.

JAIME HERMIDA CASTILLO (Nicaragua), in line with the statements to be delivered by CELAC and the non-aligned movement, emphasized the moral responsibility of the Special Committee to fulfill the mandate to eradicate colonialism. He reaffirmed that Puerto Rico is a Latin American and Caribbean nation, and recalled the forthcoming fiftieth anniversary of the first resolution on this territory. He remembered the patriotic revolutionaries, socialists, poets and other heroes of the island who also showed solidarity with the Sandinista resistance, and called on the United States to decolonize the territory. Puerto Rico can not continue to be an exception, he said, adding that “it is a nation that has every right to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as an independent country.”

DIEGO PARY RODRÍGUEZ (Bolivia), who associates with the non-aligned movement and CELAC, said that his delegation co-sponsored the draft resolution of the Special Committee in line with its strong anti-colonial commitments. He urged the body’s members to continue working to ensure that the will of the Puerto Rican people is fully respected, saying that they must be able to respond to their own pressing challenges. The General Assembly’s resolutions must be fully implemented in Puerto Rico, he said, and also called on the Special Committee to ensure that all governing powers implement programs to ensure the sustainable development of territories under their control, and to move towards an end to colonialism. once and for all.

PEDRO LUIS PEDROSO CUESTA (Cuba), which associates with the non-aligned movement and CELAC, said despite the efforts of the Special Committee, that the people of Puerto Rico are still unable to exercise their right to self-determination. The US Supreme Court has made decisions aimed at continuing the current colonial situation, and making Puerto Rico a colonial territory that is not entirely sovereign. He noted that the economic situation on the island has deteriorated, and said that the entire international community is affected by the case. The heads of state in CELAC recently noted that Puerto Rico is a particularly important issue for the region, and called for an end to colonialism once and for all. In that light, he called on the Special Committee to fully implement the mandate.

VADIM GUSMAN (Azerbaijan), speaking on behalf of the non-aligned movement, reaffirmed the importance of decolonization efforts around the world, and in particular Puerto Rico. He emphasized the principled position of the movement with regard to the territory, emphasized the need to ensure the self-determination of the people of Puerto Rico and emphasized the unwavering support of the movement’s member states for the implementation of all relevant resolutions.

He expressed concern that the people of Puerto Rico have very limited decision-making powers, pointing to the impact of this in this time of crisis, noting the complex effects of Puerto Rico’s debt overload, multiple hurricanes and the pandemic. The legislation passed by the United States to impose a tax regime in the territory violates San Juan’s ability to manage its own economic affairs, he said, urging the country to return all occupied land. Furthermore, the United States must take responsibility and accelerate the process of decolonization to ensure that Puerto Ricans can fully exercise their inalienable rights to independence, he stressed.

The representative of Syria, which joined the non-aligned movement, said that her country has for years supported putting an end to colonialism in all its forms and expressions. The United States must end its occupation of the island, in accordance with the relevant resolutions of the Assembly, she stressed, and also expressed support for the resolution to be considered later.

MARÍA DEL CARMEN SQUEFF (Argentina), speaking on behalf of CELAC, reaffirmed the importance of Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV), which constitutes “the cornerstone of the post – World War II political process promoted by the end of colonialism”. She noted the forthcoming fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the first resolution on Puerto Rico, as well as the 39 resolutions and resolutions approved by consensus since then, and reaffirmed the Latin American and Caribbean character of the territory.

The issue of Puerto Rico is a matter of great interest to CELAC, she said, adding that the bloc will continue to work within the framework of international law, to bring an unconditional end to colonialism in all its forms and manifestations in Latin America and Caribbean. region.

The representative of Cuba, who introduced the draft resolution entitled “Resolution of the Special Committee of 18 June 2021 on Puerto Rico” (Document A / AC.109 / 2022 / L.7), stated that the text confirms the Latin American and Caribbean character of Puerto Rico Rico, which the inhabitants have been able to maintain despite the actions of the colonial power. Expresses concern about undue control and economic influence exercised by the United States over the island – in addition to a recent ruling by the US Supreme Court stating that Congress “has the governments” and that any concession made to Puerto Rico can be unilaterally canceled by the US – he also gave expresses concern over cases of repression and harassment against Puerto Rico activists. “The adoption of this text with the support of all members of the [Special] Committee […] would be the best contribution this body could make to the just cause of the Puerto Rican people,” he said.

The Special Committee then adopted draft resolution “L.7” without a vote.

When was Nicaragua established?

For information media. Not an official record.

Who established Nicaragua?

How did the United States’ role in the 1982 Nicaragua Civil War change? The US government stopped official funding of Contras. The US government recognized the legitimacy of the Nicaraguan government.

How was Nicaragua formed?

Did Nicaragua belong to Mexico? Nicaragua gained its independence from Spain in 1821 and became part of the Mexican Empire for several years. It then joined a group of neighboring countries with a central government in Guatemala City called the provinces of Central America. Nicaragua split from the group in 1838 and became completely independent.

Why did the US help the Contras?

The first Spanish permanent settlements were founded in 1524. That year, the conquistador Francisco Hernández de Córdoba founded two of Nicaragua’s capitals: Granada on Lake Nicaragua, and then León, west of Lake Managua.

Nicaragua became part of the first Mexican empire in 1821, was part of the United Provinces of Central America in 1823, and then became an independent republic in itself in 1838. The mosquito coast based on the Bluefields on the Atlantic was claimed by Britain as a protectorate from 1655 to 1850.

Did the U.S. support the Sandinistas?

Efforts to support the counterattacks were a component of the Reagan doctrine, which called for military support for movements opposed to Soviet-backed communist governments. By December 1981, however, the United States had already begun supporting armed opponents of the Sandinista government.

What did the Sandinistas do?

What is a Spanish Sandinist? : Member of a military and political coalition that held power in Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990.

What did the Sandinistas believe?

The United States began supporting Contra activities against the Sandinista government by December 1981, with the CIA at the helm of operations. The CIA provided the funds and equipment, coordinated training programs and provided intelligence and target lists.

When did the US intervene in Nicaragua?

The FSLN overthrew Anastasio Somoza DeBayle in 1979, ending the Somoza dynasty, and established a revolutionary government in its place. After seizing power, the Sandinistas ruled Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as part of a Junta of National Reconstruction.

By arousing political thinking among the people, proponents of Sandinista ideology believed that human resources would be available not only to wage a guerrilla war against the Somoza regime, but also to build a society resistant to economic and military intervention imposed by foreign entities.

Why did the U.S. intervene in Nicaragua 1980s?

US intervention in Nicaragua, 1911/1912.

Which famous Indian case is related to ICJ?

When was the United States involved in the Nicaraguan Revolution? On November 17, 1981, President Reagan signed National Security Directive 17, which provided secret support to anti-Sandinista forces. An armed conflict soon arose, contributing to the destabilization of the region that had erupted through the Central American civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala.

The United States hoped that Democratic Nicaraguans would focus paramilitary operations against the Cuban presence in Nicaragua (along with other socialist groups) and use them as a rallying point for dissidents in the Sandinista military establishment.

How many times India is a party in ICJ case?

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) will deliver its judgment in the ‘Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav’ case on 17 July 2019. Both India and amp; Pakistan came with its latest submissions to court. Pakistan asked the court to declare India’s claim unacceptable or to dismiss India’s claim in its entirety.

What cases go to the ICJ?

Who fought the Jadhav case in the ICJ? Harish Salve, who fought India’s case at the International Court of Justice against the death penalty given to Kulbhushan Jadhav by Pakistan, has charged Re 1 as a fee, Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj said today.

  • Has India ever taken a case to the ICJ? Yes, once – even though it has been a party to a total of five cases, three of them with Pakistan, at the ICJ.
  • The UN International Court of Justice issues both:

How many cases are there in ICJ in India?

Judgment in disputed cases, resolution of disputes between two states. …

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