Just 18 months after transgender athletes competed for the first time in the Olympics, the federation is reviewing whether to allow women to have sexual intercourse. continues to participate in women’s competitions, amid heated debates over sports and politics, over who has the right to play .
A number of sports organizations were banned this week, citing the need to ensure fairness in the women’s competition — although they said scientists are far from science in deciding whether there is a competitive opportunity for male to female athletes.
The International Swimming Federation (FINA) will now allow only transgender women who have undergone transformation before the age of 12 to compete in high -level international competitions, including swimming, and bread and water ball. The FINA law also applies to athletes with a condition called 46 XY DSD (also known as type four). sexual intercourse), in which the genitals are not clearly feminine or masculine, but are referred to as female.
The day after the FINA came into force, the International Rugby League went further, banning all transgender women from international sports. is reviewing and updating its rules on participation. A spokesman told CBC News that there are no transgender athletes internationally.
The World Games, which sees sports and stadiums, marching races and other athletic events, has indicated that it may follow when its own rules are reviewed later this year.
“If there is a conflict between the right and inclusion in the women’s category, we will always choose the right,” the World Athletics spokesperson told CBC News. and added that FINA’s decision was “to the greatest success of its game.”
The new policies come after the International Olympic Committee last year announced it would not create a blanket rule for all sports – telling the feds they would have to make their own policies.
To date, many organizations, including FINA and World Athletics, have allowed transgender and gay women to compete if they meet the rules. for controlling testosterone levels.
The fight over who competes
The decision to ban large numbers of female athletes has drawn mixed reactions in Canada and around the world. On the same subject : Which women’s sport benefited most from Title IX?.
“The new FINA law on the inclusion of women continues to discredit and reduce gender stereotypes in women’s sports. It affects all women,” Canadian Women & amp; Games said in a statement Monday.
Some female athletes have expressed concern that transgender women and women athletes are physically fit in the competition and say they are banned from doing so. sports facilities to improve the field.
Australian Olympic swimming champion Cate Campbell on Sunday told the FINA congress she believes her decision will “support the cornerstone of accuracy in the women’s competition. “
Critics, however, believe that taboos like the FINA are more driven by belief than science, coming amid a political movement in the United States and Britain to suppress female athletes from competing (18 U.S. states prohibit girls and women from participating in women’s sports.).
“Transgender athletes are not polite, they are not in control of the sport,” Chris Mosier, Team US triathlete and transadvocate, told CBC News via email.
American college swimmer Lia Thomas is a rare exception. In March, he became the first renowned athlete to win the National Collegiate Athletic Association swimming championship – and faced immediate opposition in his career. Cheers.
“It is very clear that [FINA] policy is a response to public pressure because one swimmer worked hard, followed all the rules and achieved a success for one season,” the swimmer said. Mosier said.
The FINA has confirmed that there are no female sexual athletes competing at the top.
“We’re talking about a small group, at least five, father-and-leader converted players that have become the center of attention [in the US]-and what’s going on in “Politics, as well as the media, is more than a numerical analysis. It’s a threat to women’s sports,” said Carole Oglesby, who a member of the board of the research foundation WomenSport International.
The science so far
The FINA decision to ban female converts who converted after the age of 12, is based on changes that occur in male bodies during adolescence, when four increased testosterone causes growth and more muscle. On the same subject : MSU Sports Medicine keeps athletes and the public moving.
In its new policy, FINA said its scientific advisors “reported that there are cultural differences associated with sex in water, especially among water sports, largely due to the high levels of testosterone that characterize men from aging. “
FINA has not made its scientific recommendations public.
Experts who spoke to CBC News say there is limited research to show, if any, how good a female athlete is. transgender than cisgender athletes – in large part because research to date has not used athletes as a subject. ‘esu’e.
“What’s needed is real science in the use of athletes, and the science is just beginning,” said Joanna Harper, a medical doctor and athletic expert at Loughborough University in Egelani.
Harper leads a number of studies that look at women’s sexual performance at various levels. their changes, as well as comparing the performances of trans and cis-women athletes.
“The benefits available to female athletes are greatly reduced – not eliminated – but reduced by hormone therapy, and this practice shows the disadvantages for female athletes,” she told CBC News.
“Their large frames are now strengthened by reduced muscle mass, reduced aerobic capacity, and can lead to poor performance in things like speed, recovery and endurance.”
WomenSport International has a new team that gathers scientific evidence that hopes to help sports organizations as they ponder the future of the sport. participation of female translators.
“I just raised my hands on the idea that science is clear,” said the Oglesby board member, a former professional softball player and retired professor of kinesiology, formerly and California State University.
“I don’t know where this is going to get — so I say I’m on the fence, I’m not sure what the best solution is, but I know we are not in the place to decide what should be done. happen. “
Critics of FINA’s policy have also pointed out that all women athletes – not just transgender or sexual harassment – can refer to sexual harassment and harassment to prove their ability to compete.
“The FINA has opened up another opportunity for discrimination against women’s sports by ordering exams to decide who is a woman and who is not. This policy has nothing to do with protecting women’s sports or protecting cisgender women in sports, ”Mosier said.
Three sports, three approaches
In the days before the FINA made its public decision, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) – which oversees international cycling games, includes roads, trails, mountains and BMX – changed her policy for women athletes. Read also : Magic Johnson invests in a Metaverse game mashup of sports, esports, games and Web3.
Instead of banning them from competing, the UCI has halved the maximum testosterone level from 5 nmol/L – the current limit for most other sports, including athletes – at 2.5 nmol/L, twice the time required by athletes. keep testosterone low before being able to compete, at 24 months.
The football governing body, FIFA, is also reviewing its rules this year, but said it will review any qualified players on a case -by -case basis until its new rules are enforced.
The FINA is also offering a new “open” sign that transgender women can participate – banning high -profile women from competition.
It’s not clear what the event will look like, or whether other sports will follow or be featured at events like the Olympics, said Sarah Teetzel, a professor of kinesiology at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, is studying the barriers faced by transgender athletes. get involved in sports.
“They say a working group is looking at it right now, but are they really going to fund the same rewards, promotions, opportunities, opportunities? It’s a really surprising thing when they do.”
Angela Schneider, director of the International Center for Olympic Studies at Western University in London, Ont., Suggests that sports organizations should work together to build a foundation for women’s participation in sports.
“It takes minds that have the ability to be open but at the same time important, and to step back and look at this, and allow people to have open conversations,” he said. Schneider, a Canadian Olympic champion.
“It has to be a way to be able to represent women athletes. And it has to be a way to really talk about the right thing to do. foundation. “
Can men get pregnant?
‘& quot; Since the 2000s, many fake websites have appeared on the Internet claiming to describe the world’s first pregnant woman. While some rely on legal scientific information, no such examples have been reported.
How to have a baby without a breath? Surrogacy. There is a way to get a baby from a woman who has had her abortion, even though someone else has to take it for her (substitute). This can happen if one or two ovaries are left. Eggs can be removed, fermented outside the body, and then a surrogate can become pregnant and carry the baby.
How can a man get pregnant?
It seems obvious, but you have to have regular sex (2 or 3 times a week) if you want to be a boy. Having sex after your partner (when an egg comes out of the ovary) increases your chances of getting pregnant. Read more about the best time to get pregnant.
Does every man have a uterus?
Males do not have ovaries and do not lay eggs. Men have no stomachs.
Are there any trans tennis players?
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|High standards||No. 20 (February 1979)|
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Does the Olympics allow athletes to translate? Players who changed from female to male were allowed to compete without restriction. These guidelines were used for the Rio 2016 Olympics, although no professional athletes competed. In 2021, the IOC approved Laurel Hubbard, a female convert, to compete in the 2020 Summer Olympics in weightlifting.
Does testosterone affect athletic performance?
Testosterone works in muscle cells by binding to a specific protein, the androgen receptor. Upon secretion of testosterone, the androgen receptor signals to muscle tissue to activate mechanisms that trigger muscle growth, called muscle hypertrophy. As a result, the muscle grows stronger.
Does testosterone affect performance? In addition, testosterone can improve athletic performance, not only through its long -term natural activity, but also through immediate effects on behavior. In women, increased testosterone production due to sudden onset of sexual dysfunction (DSD) may indicate a competitive advantage.
Does low testosterone affect athletic performance?
A study of female professional triathletes found no link between high testosterone and performance. Next, looking at professional athletes, there was a lack of coordination.
Is testosterone important for athletes?
Testosterone increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis after training, which appears to occur over a long period of time as testosterone increases gene conversion to increase muscle protein utilization and, therefore, lea, eye hypertrophy.